Migraine is a type of headache and comes in the form of recurrent seizures, usually moderate to severe in severity, and is gradually increasing, and makes up about 12% of other types of headaches, and often affects individuals aged between 10- 30 years, mostly on one side of the head but can come on both sides of the head, lasting from hours to days, usually accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The headache is pulsating in nature, and during a headache attack the patient is sensitive to light and sounds, and usually affects women more than men. Certain types of genes have a significant role in migraines and affect brain cells. Migraines can be inherited from family members.
There are many factors that can trigger a migraine attack, including:
- The noise.
- Bright light.
- Strain during defecation or coughing.
- Some foods and drinks such as:
- Cheeses, chocolates, processed meats, alcohol; Because these foods and beverages contain the following substances: Nitrate, glutamate, aspartame, and thiamine.
- Sudden cessation of caffeinated beverages.
- Not eating too long can trigger a migraine attack.
- Some types of medications, such as hormonal drugs, and drugs that are used in case of high pressure, or disorder of hormones.
- Disorders and stress.
- Lack of sleep.
- Some smells.
In order for a headache to be classified as a migraine, the patient must experience several symptoms, including:
- More than five headaches lasting four to forty-eight hours. Headaches may be on one side of the head or cover almost one side and not all of the head, although there may be headaches involving both sides of the head.
- The nature of the headache is pulsating; that is, it is as if something is beating in the head.
- The severity of the headache is moderate to severe, disrupting the person’s daily activities.
- Exacerbation of headaches with physical activities.
- Changes in appetite, nausea or vomiting.
- Aura, a temporary symptom caused by a focal cerebral dysfunction that precedes a migraine attack and lasts for less than 60 minutes. One side of the head, loss of ability to speak, but it does not occur in all types of migraine. Photophobia, phonophobia or odontophobia.
Treatment of migraines
The first step to treating migraines is to avoid triggers for migraines. Treatment for seizures depends on the severity of the seizure; low-intensity seizures can be treated with NSAIDs such as ibuprofen or naproxen. If the migraine attack is moderate to severe, treatment with one of the following medicines:
- Triptans: Serotonin receptor stimulant medications that are effective in treating migraine attacks and are available in two forms; oral medications such as: By mouth.
- Dihydroergotamine, used as a nasal spray.
For migraine prevention, medications are used only in cases of severe migraine attacks and disruption of the patient’s daily duties, and if migraine attacks recur more than three times a month. Medications used to treat migraine attacks include:
- Anticonvulsants, such as topiramate, or bis-valoprox sodium.
- Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline and nortriptyline.
- Future beta-blockers such as propranolol.
- Methysergide drug.
- Riboflavin is a vitamin B2.
- Calcium channel blockers such as Verapamil